صدیق رهپو طرزی

Afghanistan: The Beautiful Ethnic Mosaic

صدیق رهپو طرزی

Afghanistan: The Beautiful Ethnic Mosaic


The descendants of of Adam are members of each other
In Creation they are from the same  and essence  
Afghanistan is the  treasures of ethnics and languages
Different color of flowers, give more beautiful shade to garden
Seddiq Rahpoe Tarzi
Human development in the line of Evolution
Environment as we know it, in which the living entities including human-being live, make deep effect on the physical shape, color, feature of  the face, body and even their nerve system. The knowledge which study and review this section named geography.
Since this section plays an important role in shaping the situation of our country from view points of the nature to human vision, it is necessary to review it properly.
As it is clear, intelligent and wise man, or as we call it Homo Sapiens Sapiens among categories such as animals, especially like: H. Habilis, H. Erectus and H. Neanderthal was able  during the upper Paleolithic, just around three hundred thousand years ago in Africa, to develop forward. 
The course of spreading: out of Africa or ...
All around about this course of spreading, there are two views: A, out of Africa or the origin  and the  B, Diversity which associated with the simultaneous growth in different regions.
It has been clear that about a hundred thousand years ago in Africa Sapiens, in Asia H. Erectus, and in Europe H. Neanderthal lived. Around thirty thousand years ago this Diversity was ended and H. Sapiens from view points of organs and behavior had been changed to  modern humans. Because of this transformation, the heated debate between the two views above, was launched.
Based on principe of  out of Africa, humans evolved in Africa  and then migrated to  Eurasia  replaced all previous human spices. Homo Sapiens, beginning to change behavior and achieve grace. An interesting point in this section, is archaeological finding which its outlooks are based on  science and objectively. According to this, four to five thousand years ago a big transformations in modern human behavior occurred. The areas which was affected were as: Ways of feeding practices, making tools and even the symbols of expressions. This amazing transformation can be called cultural change. This kind of modern human behavior, draw a clear line of separation between him and the other  humanoid. This transformation was called by Donald C. Johnson, Professor of  Archaeological  and director of Institute of Principle of Human Origins at the University of Arizona in USA as Creative Explosion. He believed, “This kind of technical creative and complex social organization shows the  the complicated historical ideas of  human being who  still were hunting and gathering their food” Simply this kind of  qualitative changes, shaped  our existing human. Ancient way of life at the period of Upper Paleolithic was occurred in the same continent of Africa before anywhere else  and then migrate to other parts of the world. Our way of life just eleven thousand years ago, was hunting and gathering food. In the line of  the evolution, we can see the social and biological factors simultaneously. Gene findings clearly show that humans are extremely similar and identical. Knowledge of this genealogy  confirm that H. Sapiens, for the first time four hundred thousand to a hundred years ago emerged in Africa. This knowledge suggests that ten to fifty thousand people in Africa between fifty to a hundred thousand years ago left it. As far as reviews and data obtained from human knowledge, especially the anthropology, which study the human origins and roots, shows that human due to different kind of reasons, as looking for good places to live and to obtain new sources of living, made migrations the only way. Thus the H. Sapiens spread around sixty thousand years ago across Asia and thirty thousand years ago came to Australia and America.
Different look
Whenever the intelligent of H. Sapiens, give him the power of  the distinction and making possible to understand his around and about his presence in this area did think about his environment. The first thing that attracted its glance were the symptoms difference between it and others, regardless of type and character matched with another form.
Race, an old concept
This look, however, slowly, in word of race, was entered human culture.
In this line, a lot of so called scholars were trying to divid humans on the base of appearance and physical differences such as: Skin color, nose size, hair type as : Straight  or curls, dark or blond, the shape of  eye, especially the color and different shape of faces.
Great difficulty in these categories was that how to drew its borders? Because of this problem they offered the great circles such as: European, Asian and African race. However, in this scheme it is extremely difficult to build borders too. Next, the language enter and the issue of races were classified as Indo -European, Semitic, Latin and so and so .... Later the issue were set up in the rankings  by religions. This process continued for three centuries, with endless arguments.
In the twentieth century, some scientists tried to measure the differences on the base of biology findings.
This events, during the 20th  century caused the great crisis and end with the theory of  supper and lower races and opening the way to the crematorium ovens for eliminating of so called lower races by Nazis.
Then slowly with the spread of science and  knowledge, the thoughts of  racial differences, lost the colors. The most recent example is the knowledge of the gene. It now became clear that according to scientists  there is no difference between humans on the physical, regional, language and religion base.
As a result, the scientists reached to this outcome  that different characteristic such as: skin color, hair, face and other and others  are shaped in the line of evolution and adaptation and consistent with environment around the world. This is the result of very long  process of matching the power of adaptation of  human-beings and other  living to the conditions of  environments.
Thus, the  feature of our face and body, is due to  adaptation and transformation in the length of our life. Then these feature involve in the  genes. In this processes some transition work will be done. However, this process can combine and making  a new one and or even be misleading.
Thus the difference between the various categories of human depends directly to these factors as: Geographical situation, production, adaptation or natural selection and genes.
Obvious example is the skin color. The lightness and darkness of colors, depending on how much the peoples have been exposed in the light of the sun or have been away from it. Darkest color in tropical regions can be seen and then going slowly to the southern hemisphere and the north one, color of skin get brighter. The bears in  Arctic area have white color  but in the tropical one are dark and brown.
People with a dark color skin around twenty-five thousand years ago entered from Africa into Europe. They after entering to new land lost material which was  absorbing the color. This transformation, after entering to gene opens the way to the core and gradually became a heritage .
Scenics  indicates that  Melanin makes the skin darker, it has the ability to protect the  skin against ultraviolet of sun rays that cause burns. New findings indicate that dark skin not only has different  color, but is thicker. This feature keep it form bite  of insect too.
In this context, we can see a lot of adaptations with various environmental from the ocean up into the highest mountain peaks, rain forests and burning deserts. Human living  in sub-Saharan  of Africa and at iced houses in Alaska, according to the line of adaptation .
Such a belief of different races, leave the  superior race, belongs to the past.
Globalization and the elimination of borders, slowly eliminating the races theory.
Again, there are some people who still cling to this lower and supper theory of races. We must try our best to shed light on and spread the ideas equality among races.
Struggle and battle between these two trends continue yet severely.
We and Geography
Slowly,  the division of races gave the way for ethnic studying. 
As we know, Afghanistan is situated in the heart Eurasia, a land of vast forest, pasture and half plain, and formed links with Asia and Europe. This area extends from Mediterranean to China . This way that the East and West and North to South are linked and has become a great crossroad. The same way, only in the historical period Mongols, Scythians, Greeks, Indians, Persian and other and other, have passed through. Sophia R. Bowlby says, “..  Many of these different groups can still be distinguished in the population today.”now it can be any kind of folk to see clearly here.,, (The Archaeology of Afghanistan ..., p.9)
Close relationship and the close link between ethnic diversity and the different aspects of nature  can be seen. In this land  there are mountains which stretched over the sky and for the length of year their peaks are covered with snow on one side and on the other side, burning plains and deserts have a clear presence. It is without  reason that the plain of south called Death Desert. There are dry deserts in one hand and the green valley on the other hand. It makes the real feature of this land.
This diversity of environments, made the living conditions of  people very different.
On the base of Archaeology we can find the roots of this problem. This knowledge review  ethnic groups from primitive ways of life to advanced  technical tools. The essence of  archeology  knowledge is that it divide myths and legends from reality and reveals facts and data.
It is simple to be noted that large parts of human being here finding food, tools, clothing and shelter close to its environments. Thus access to natural sources had a big role in their way of life and shaped their style. Another element in shaping were played by weather and climate.
In the first step its better to study the natural structure which can be called Physiographic.
S. R. Bowlby, according to surveys of  Cressey of 1960 and Brice in 1966, “ Geology of this land had not been studied fully yet. All parts of the country is surrounded by the mountains which had been shaped from Pyrenees to Himalayas recently.”
 In Afghanistan, two series of mountains can be seen. One of them starting from Pamir Knot   passing through the valley of Sind, reaches to the Persian Gulf. The other two branches are separated, one that crawls toward Herat, and reach to Caspian sea. And the hight of the next one be reduced to the Helmand valley plains are lost there. As far as is clear, weather and climate outcome of this structure is dry. In this way high the mountains also plying and are  barriers  against the harsh wind. However, Northwest Division can be considered separate from it. Where, according to locals, winds of hundred and twenty days from July to September is blowing. Thus Afghanistan has little land for cultivation and farming has been heavily reliant on water sources. Considering this fact,  that incredible data about climate change is available. However, it can be noted that from the time pre-history, so far in this section  profound change had  never occurred and the situation remains as today. Certainly we can say that from 500 BC there had not been any deep transformation too.
Thus Afghanistan, a country  with high mountains land low lands makes natural way in this section. This has caused our present different ways of life as: Nomadism, hunting, gathering food and  then agriculture. Another important sign are the  closeness of  different environments. This situation helped the people in the Paleolithic to access the small technical means. Another important point is that climate variability in the short distance provides people in Paleolithic  the possibility to have a mobile life without much trouble, from one place to another place.
We, Pre-History and History
It is clear that scientists have divided the human history into two stages as: Pre  and  history.
Words prehistory applies  to that date that humans in the long process of  evolution  was separated from Hominids. Then there came the time of  making  stone tools and  it was replaced by metal one and is going on. 
Pre-history, links closely with traditional history of different peoples and  among us too. So it must be considered first.
Our Traditional History
As we knew this  part of our history is shrouded with the aura of myths, stories and legends. This myth has some roots in the oral legends which had came down to us  from the mouths of generations to generations. In the essence and text of these myths we can see the figures of Vdic and Avesta religions. New icon is Khodai Namak or Letter of Lord which is the main source of King Letter or epic of Shah Nama.
Despite the spread of Islam, this epic had survived. This was  Ruzbeh or Ebn e Muqafa (757) who translated it in Arabic. There is a wide belief that there were  others who also translated it. Later on the base of the Persian translation of Ebn e Muqafa  a lot of books compiled in the form of prose and lyric too. Among these, the most  famous is the old preface of Shah Nama which was  compiled by order of  Mansur Abdol, the  ruler of Khorasan in the (960). This book makes  basic foundation and backbone of Shah Nama, which was compiled by Ferduwsi (1010). As it is clear  term of Shah Nama is the  translation of Khodai  Namak or  God Letter. This work, is the most basic text of our traditional history.
This traditional history or tradition of stories and legends tell us about  Pishdadi, Kayani, Parthian and the Sasanid linage. This traditional history instead of looking with critical points,  combines legend, myth, story, imagination, opinion-oriented, moral idealism, expressed extravagant deeds of heroes, loyalty, ambition, the victim, the ideals, dreams and so and so. Here, people captured and manifest destiny is in para.
What it especially important that on the final section, we can see,  the outlook of powerful Sasanid era which have shaped it.
It is very strange that our famous historians without any critical outlooks enter these  myths and legends into history. Faiz Mohammad Kateb, started it  and others like: Ahmad Ali Kuhzad, 1944, Gholam Mohammad Ghobar, 1967, Abdol Hai Habibi, 1967, and the last one Mohammad Seddiq Farhang 1992, walked on the same path.
It's interesting that some researchers even now clinging to  myths and see them as historical documents, not myths and legends.
Our people in Paleolithic Period
As it was expressed, since data and figures which we got through archaeology have  no written language, they can not shed light on the historical situations of people, their language and their social structure.
However, the material culture of the archaeological excavations which have been obtained, indicating the presence of people who lived here in the distant past. Here we can see a combination of coalescence between local tradition and external influence there. Clearly there is a strong link between the East and South East of Afghanistan and Indus valley. On the other hand, this relation existed between the North of country and Central Asia, and final, South West or Sistan with the West, particularly Iran, is linked. This map elements the current political  borders.
Thus  between 60,000 to 500 BC, can be read as prehistory. So our history began from 500 BC, which we  have inscriptions.
Reminder: We must not forget  that we all waiting the break of  mystery  of  Helmand- Indus valley civilization inscriptions. Then, this section can be entered into history too.
Since the deep changes in social life has close links with the ability and level of work efficiency tools, it can be divided in such categories:
A:  Paleolithic period which beginning  with the first stone tool and continues to  the  end of ice age (eight and a half thousand years ago). This period have such subdivision:
1 - Lower Paleolithic which marks with the first forms of human and  making hand axes. (About a hundred and twenty thousand years ago ended.)
2 -  Middle Paleolithic is simultaneous with the emergence of human Neanderthal. (Thirty-five thousand years ago to end)
3 -  Upper Paleolithic, which emerge only with modern humans, what we call Homo Sapiens Sapiens.
Should it be noted that this period of growth and evolution, takes between two to two an d half  billion years.
B: Neolithic: this period is called the polished stone tools. We call it the end of the stone age too. Important sign of this period is the  domestication of livestock and grains and cereals such as wheat, barley and so and so. Its worth to mention that  deep cultural change occurs too. Oldest signs which has been discovered recently is in the valley of Qumol which is 20 km away for city of Aleppo in Syria. Here, between ten thousand and seven hundred to nine thousand four hundred years before Jesus, is old. It should be noted that till the  archaeologists confirm these findings the Jericho in the East Sea coast in Jordan can be seen  the oldest one. It was built 9500 years BC.
Our situation in these periods
Sixty thousand years until the seventh century BC.
Lower Paleolithic:Sixty thousands years ago
It must be noted that in our country, until after World War II, exploring of the prehistoric period was not done. According to Richard Davis, “Afghanistan was like a blank spot on the the map  of prehistoric studies”. As we  knew the first spade  for exploring archaeological knowledge was hit the ground in 1922.
The first mission to explore the pre-history of our country started in 1951. Figures such as: F.R. Allchin, Coon, Puglisi, and  other and other can be named. However, in the role which Dupree played in this research was special prominence.
It should not be forgotten that as Dupree mentioned, before the spade of exploring Lower Paleolithic areas hit  the ground,  some Afghans among them Ahmad Ali Kuhzad ( 1950 a) starting to to write  a lot of articles about Lost Cities. This acts, for a  long period kept away minds  of people from receiving the facts and truth.
 Lower Paleolithic is a part of archeology which  explore very ancient time. This work for the first time had been done by  Dupree in Ab e Estada (Still Water) or salty water lack of Ghazni province. It located in  Navor desert which is in south of Hindu Kosh mountains. He did this search in in 1974 at the North East coast of the  lack. Although this review was very short, interesting old stone tools such as scrappers, cutting and pebbles were found which is very significant. It is pity that digging and researches after the political changes in 1973 and especially 1978, stopped. The closest results in this direction can be seen in Central Asia and Baluchestan. With it, the first such review give this fact that  hunting peoples and food collector at that time, with amazing skill adapted themselves to their environments.
Middle Paleolithic: Fifty to thirty thousand years ago
This part connecting with small work tools and Neanderthal presence. Dupree  in 1968, in  Dara e  Kur valley, near Chenar e Gungus Khan, in Badakhshan, was able to discover this. In this section, the shelter is a high place and from it we can see all the lower area. Dupree in this mission was accompanied by Davis, another archaeologist.
Basic signs and indicators in this section are bladed stones. The time in these tools of work goes to 30,000 and more. In side of  Kur valley, there is a  cave named  Ghar e Mordah Guspand or Dead Sheep Cave, and then the  valley of Hazar Som or Thousand Hoofs, Kara Kamar and Dasht e Navor also named. Total tools obtained by are eight hundred pieces. Besides that tool, till now a piece of temple of Hominids obtained. First  studies, because the further studying  stopped, show that the bone is similar to modern humans than Neanderthal.
From the remains of  of animals that had been obtained, sheep and goats can be named and deer still adding to it. This display the beginning of hunting era. Here there were humans that were very skillful hunters.
The archaeological data show that  in this time around, there were less population in compare with the rather large population such as:Europe or Mesopotamia. In this context, there are many reasons which is not necessary for mentioning them.
Upper Paleolithic: Twenty-five thousand years
This period in Afghanistan is a transit time  of  hunting and gathering foods.
Important places in this context which have been exploring tare: Kara Kamar 1and 3, Dar e Kalan or Big Valley, Aq Kupruk II, III A and III B, Kok Jar and  Tashqorghan e 40.
Results obtained from work tools show that large part of them belonged to burins. People in this time consuming  sheep and the wild horse meat. In Aq Kupruk 2, the explorers have achieved a stone with the  facade of a human face on. This may be the oldest sculptor in Asia. Dupree believe, that related links, and interactions between humans and wild sheep and goats in this period, making way for domestication of livestock. In Aq Kupruk 1, and Ghar e Mar or Cave of Snake, the effect of domestic sheep and goats can be seen.  It was the time that still they  used stone vessels and the technology of making pottery was not developed .
The results from studies on human presence in Afghanistan show that they were present here in ancient time. They were living on hunting and gathering  foods and were always in the process of social – cultural changes according  to the reactions principle with the environment. Large part of their lives and consistent compliance with environment. In this process they domesticated livestock and grains.
So, this period was the  dawn of Neolithic.
Neolithic: Six thousand BC.
It is clear that after the last glacier era, the human reliance on food changed to  domesticate cereal cultivation and livestock . This is called the Neolithic revolution. According to G. Shaffer (1978, pp. 79 and 71.) it took place around the sixth century BC. In this period, stone were used, but with more polish and preparation, and plays an important role in their life. Then the metal replaced it. There are  clear signs that the prehistoric cultural development in Afghanistan and it is not due  to moving of people to this country from the West.
G. Shaffer, says about it, “First of all human presence in the area of modern Afghanistan (Note: wherever this term used, referring to the current borders of Afghanistan or the current political existence not of geographical one, because the latter area extended form Central Asia to Indus valley and from  Pamir Mountains to  Sistan .Tarzi) has a long history. Second: That the hunters and gatherers of  natural food were always in the line of changing forever according to the social and cultural adaptation to their environment. Third: the compatibility and compliance of their acts with wild animals slowly paved the way for  domestication of animals and then it is possible that the grain were cultivated,, (Shaffer, Archeology of Afghanistan, 1978, p. 0.71)
Profound changes
 It is clear that  the profound transformation of human evolution took pace in three forms: 1 – A tool that humans have made of stone. 2 -  Civilization or of urban life. 3 - Industrial Economics. We saw this three profound changes in their social relationships on the line of  environment and still be in connection with the human-being.
Indicators and measures for important and dramatic changes and evolution in this phase, certainly is the  domestication of  livestock and grain. This can be seen the most important changes in technical tools and cultural development.
In this context, making the beginning of domestication of animal and grains can be close to thirty thousand years ago. In this list we can name sheep-goats and later sheep and goats.
In the grain sector, we can mention of  wheat, but still not clear that its use has been here or imported.
In this period  we have witnessed the emergence of pottery and clay. According to  Dupree, still another indicator is the  worship of goat. Its remnants had continued  in Nurestan till the end of 19th  century. Some symbols of that worship can be found in Chetral now.
Dupree in1972 Dar e Kur or Blind Valley, was able to discover it. During his  exploration, he  found in a grave the of surviving domestic goat bones along skeleton  of two children. Dupree think that it was connected to goat worship ceremonies.
At this stage we have witnessed the gradual transformation from the nomadic life to began of grazing around settlements or cultivation and farming.
Bart, a sociologist who in  the large parts of the country has done extensive local surveys, says, “ The Nomadic life connected closely with pasture. They were able to multiple systems such as: Nomadic and still take advantage of agriculture.” (Bart.1961).It  can be  noted that the process of long domestication of  livestock and grain, paved the way to the stage of Nomadic life  and agriculture. We can see it in remnants of architect. This opened  the way for settlement and agriculture too, but Nomadism continued beside this system.
City, the base of  civilization
Some  think that civilization has been began with the formation of community and layered and stratification society on the same time. This can be called a simultaneous human primary government or community sings, and this complex is still located in the current debate, however, Fried in his work that was published in 1969, writes on page 186,  “It is such a structure in which the position of members of the same sex and age are based material that provides live access are not identical.,, In this case the matter of food and basic tools are not major sources such as agricultural land, livestock, and sources of raw materials for making tools.
From data that can be found in Afghanistan, it can be noted that steel tools shows this transformation. Metal and its compounds opened the way for  producing highly efficient tools, weapons, and valuable things. In Afghanistan they had been obtained in the the north and the south of Hindu Kosh. Important symbol of it is Ghar e Mar or Snake Cave where Dupree in 1972  explored. In this context  we can write a long list of metal tools from the bronze and iron ages. Prominent places that until now were explored in  the small amount, due to the crises of recent decades, are as:
·         Navor Desert in Ghazni.
·         Dara e Kur or Blind valley in Tashqorghan.
·         Tashqorghan 40.
·         Qara Kamar.
·         Dara e Kalan or Big valleys in Aybak area.
·         Aq Kupruk in Mazar.
·         Ghar e Morda Guspand or the Cave  of Death Sheep.
Last Years of Pre-history
This is clear that we can pursue this process with  domestication of  livestock, grains and plants. The transformation and transition process from hunting and gathering of natural food substance, goes to the agriculture mixture began with the scattering of seeds  was happening with nomadism. Shaffer, believe as, “It is highly accurate and correct that  nomads were the sources of  t links between the scattered groups of agriculturists.... They were later, the cultural links between Afghanistan, Baluchestan, Indus Valley and Turkmenistan  in pre-history period.
Since then, we're seeing a deep vacuum. All parts of the  south from  the city of Deh Morsai to  Shar e Sukhta became empty suddenly. According to  Shaffer this conditions continue to the final stage of  bronze age  and the beginning of  Iron Age.
In this case we are facing a lot of questions. What happened  over the fate of  Helmand-Indus civilizations which its  extensive goes to Amo river? The latest discovery of Shurtugy in the bank of Amo or Oxus river in years 1971 and 1977 is evidenced  of it. It shows that  in the third millennium BC this event occurred. There are a lot of more questions too.
Thus, from the  the end of the second millennium BC to  500 BC  we're facing a deep vacuums of knowledge.
 Only and only its future – if there is stability and peace with political intentions in the country- can shed light on the last centuries of our pre-history before our country clearly show  the growth of important human cultural  and the gap of time.
This period was ended with the creating of inscription  and historical periods can be started.
The Dawn of History
Inscriptions: The Starting Point
This principle is clear that history starts in every country and territory with the inscriptions. Before that time belongs to mythology. Those who seek history in the poems of Vidic and Avesta, they clear ignore this border line. They should know that they are in wrong path in this way.
We in this regard, are not lack of these kind of personalities: Ahmad Ali Kuhzad in his  writings of the year (1946 and 1953 A), Najibolla Tur  Vyana (1961) and other and others  ... Even foreigners as Frazer Tytler (1967).
For finding the truth  we must  study the inscriptions which is one of the main work of   archeology.
As we have mentioned  after the collapse of and Helmand-Indus civilizations, at  the end of the second millennium, BC. we  are facing with a black hole of knowledge in this area. During this period which development is going inside this society slowly, we are eyewitness of high mobility, the waves of migration, exchange of trade  and bloody wars and settlement of different ethnic groups inside this land.
Inscriptions and we
As we mentioned above, Afghanistan from point of  geography is not bound in the current political boundaries. So the Inscription of  Darius I (468-521 BC.) which my be carved in in 516 BC is the oldest one which we have it in our hands. It called Bisotun  inscription. We can find the names of  provinces  in three parts of Bisotun inscriptions which are inside modern Afghanistan borders.
 Darius I (486 -521), strengthening the foundations and ruled the following provinces which are within the country's current political boundaries. The  names of these province were curved in three log of Bisotun Inscription, his castle in Persepolis and Naqsh e Rostam  as:
1 - Haraiva / Areia (Herat)
2 -  Bacteria / Baxtish (Balkh)
3 - Thatagush / Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus Valley)
4 -  Arachosia / Harauvatish (Farah, Helmand and Kandahar)
5 – Zarangiana- Drangiana / Zaranka (Zaranj or Sistan)
6 - Gandara / Gandhara) (Kabul and Peshawar)
The  language of these inscriptions are the ancient Persian, Akkadian (Babylonian) and  new Elamite.
Within the current boundaries of modern Afghanistan, the first inscription is in Aramaic language. As we knew the Aramaic language was brought by Assyrians in Mesopotamia or Iraq in the beginning of the second millennium BC. It was found in bridges of Darunta in 1932. This is one of the commands of Ashoka which is in  Prakrit language. This one was used in middle of India, and is also associated with Aramaic. Will be worth to say that Kharoshthi letters are taken from Aramaic form  with some changes.
Then we saw the enter of  Alexander the Great l (c. 331 BC). During the clash between his successors, Bactrians and Parthians declared independence in the third century BC. Later, the  Greece-Bactrians monarchs ruled this area.  Yueh-chi, from the border of China, entered Central Asia in 160 BC. Took the place of Scythians who long time ago were settled in  Pamir, Kashghar, Khotan and reached to  Herat and Sistan. Then the other branches of  Yueh-chi  tribes have passed on  Oxus river  and  settled in the Bacteria  c. 120-80. and replaced the  Greece-Bactrians rulers and captured their land in north of  Hindu Kosh mountains.
Indo-Parthians in 25 as a political  power emerged in south of the Hindu Kosh and extended their rule to Indus  valley and  influence to  Punjab. In 78.  Kushan  princes came on the scene. Mac Daval, writes about it as,  “The Chinese Almanac  give detailed descriptions of how the King of Kushan attacked on  An-hsi ( Indo or Indo-Parthians) and takes  Kao-fo (Kabul ) and P'u-ta and destroyed Chin-pin (Punjab and Kashmir) ,, (Daval, pre-Islamic era. Archaeology of Afghanistan. p. .233.)
Then we witness the battle between Sasanid and  Kushanians in the third century AD.
One of the inscription of  Samudragupta (335-380 AD) was discovered in Allah Abad of India shows that Kabul and  Gandhara were established  by Yueh-chi family and Peshawar was his capital. Then in  the end of the 4th  century different Hunnic tribes  raided.
Hephthalites who belonged to  Yueh-chi tribe  were able to the defeat Firuz, the king of  Sasanid and made  a great empire from Central Asia to Indus in 484. They also had a link with Kushanians.
As we know Arabs under the banner of  Islam, defeated Sasanid in 642. After two hundred years of their campaign, with the help of the local rulers they had won this land. But their political dominance, did not survive more than a few days. Nurestan is a little sample of this resistance which converted to Islam by force in 1886. They kept their ancient rituals for eleven centuries. The sense of people for  freedom were embodied in local free regimes of Tahirids, Safaris, Samanids,  Ghaznavids  and so and so. They defended their culture, especially their languages, and defeated the  Baghdad dominated rule..
During the same century in the mountains of  east of Afghanistan, the reign of the powerful non-Islamic Turkish and Indo Shai (Kings) continued.
Thus we see in the long course of events as mentioned above, ethnic and linguistic beautiful mosaic tabulate has taken shape in this country.
It is not unreasonable that  Morgensterne the famous Norwegian linguist, who started to work here since (1924) and studied our languages and culture call it as “The Precious Treasure”of ethnics.
Ethnic and linguistic mosaic
The  ethnic category be called of a people who are a  part of a larger community.  Its members together sharing the same cultural heritage which in its essen is  language.
It is clear that diversity and multi-ethnics is a part and parcel of a complex community. It exist  in all current communities around the world.
This, in  the first step had been shaped by migration which continued for  centuries till the  human being settled down. In this process the wars brought several groups in one territory under the specific rule. Immigration still can be seen as a means for transferring ethnic groups around the world.
Based on the last review of the  Institution of Languages Encyclopedia, which was  edited by  Paul M. Lewit, in 2009, in Afghanistan there are 49 different languages. One of them is a death language . Two of then had not classified yet.
We can divided all languages  into five separate sections. I, here try to look in them according to their on the oldness.
A:  Brahui
It linked to Dravidian languages. Our people, were used this language before of entering the speakers of  Indo-European language or Indo-Hittite into this area. Large part of them   under the assailants and pressure,migrated to  south of India, however, a small group remained in Baluchestan and Afghanistan.
B: Indo-European or Indo-Hittite
In this context should be noted that inscriptions left by the Empire of Hittite had been written  in Acadian language. They were discovered in (1887) with over three thousand pieces. They display the fact that there was is a great Empire. Its vast territories extended form Syria to Mesopotamia. Its peak power flourished between 1700 to 1200 BC. This location now remains in  Bugazi Kui which situated in 160 Km of  Ankara, Turkey's capital.
Linguists believe that this discovery greatly expanded and is more ancient language, which long ago was called Indo-European, and be now can be called Indo-Hittite.
C: Altaic
Linguists believe that  from the perspective of history the  Altaic peoples were living in steppe lands of Central Asia. Their original location is Altaic Mountains range. This word drawn form  Mongolian language of  Altan word that mean gold. It can be called Gold Mountain. This mountain binds Central Asia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China together. In this section, Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu- Tungus are the  main branches. In the new study, they pinpointed other branches too.
Due to a lot of immigrations, the language and her other numerous branches spread  to  West, East and South of Altai Mountains. Other branches of this language are to fifty and 135 million people talk with. This including  the large part of Asia from Peking to  Turkey, or more correctly from East Europe to Pacific ocean.
 At the end 4th  century, more people from the north made  onslaught on our land and drove the Sasanid out. But, this time the people who speak the language of Altai and came from Mongolia. The first group named Chinonite and then were followed by people called them  Hephthalites. These and other groups, particularly from view point of character were similar to Hunan. We knew of the battle of Shahpur II (309-379) against Chinonite and Kushanians year ( 356). This fact is based on document and clear knowledge.
D: Arabic
This group belongs to the Semitic languages with Hebrew and New Aramaic. Here a small group of Arab surviving in parts of Maimana, and Balkh Aqcha. They talk  Arabic-Persian.
E: Sign  language
There are people around  Jalalabad, Kabul, Mazar, Herat, Kandahar who communicate with sign language. It belong to division of blind language.
The Roots of Languages
A-Indo-European or Indo-Hittite. In our country these languages connected to Indo-European or Indo-Hittite :
1 -  Aimaq: has some speakers in North West. Its other name is barbaric  and time and four Char (four) Aimaq.
2 -  Ashkun: has speakers in the valley of Pich.
3 – Baluchi: The people in southwestern plains of Helmand river and  Zaranj speaking it.
4 -  Darwazi: A city in the bank of  Oxus river. Here people speak it.
5 -  Domari: It is a kind of accent .
6 -  Persian: One of the official language and as franco lingua between different languages in Afghanistan.
7 -  Gawar-Bati: It has speakers in Konar.
8 -  Grangali: It has speaker in the valley of Pich.
9 – Gujari or Gagary: It has speakers among seasonal nomads.
10 -  Hazaragi: It is an accent  of Persian language with some of Mongolian words. It is in central Afghanistan. It has  some speakers in the  neighboring countries too.
19 -  Jakati or Zhakati: It has some speakers in Jalalabad and Kabul.
20 -  Kamviri: It has some speakers in Kamdish.
21 -  Kati: It has some speakers in the valley of Bashgal which located in Nurestan.
22 – Kurdish: Around Kabul there are some speakers of this language.
23 – Munji: In the village of Mnjan and Mamalga  people chat in it.
24 – Ormuri: In  the village of Baraki Barak of  Lugar province people  speak with it.
25 – Parachi: In Nejrab and Tagaw and the valley near Kabul, people use it.
26 -  Pahlavani or Phalavani: In Chakhansur people talk in.
27 -  Parya: The other names is Nas sellers Afghans. Black faces Afghans and Laghmanian.
28 - Pashayi :They live in different parts of country as: Konar, Pich, Kapisa, Laghman, Alishing and Alinegar, Dar e Nur and  Sarobi. Some of their  dialects is such different that a lot of then do not know each other.
30 – Pashto: As Persian, it is one of two official languages of the country.
31 -  Prasuni: They live in the valley of  Prasun, located above the river of Pich in Nurestan.
32 -  Sanglechi-Ishkashimi: It has speakers in the valley of  Sanglech located in the village of Ishkashim. Villagers speak in Sanglechi and some in Ishkashimi.
33 – Savi: It has speakers in the bank of Konar river in Sav village.
34 -  Shughni or Shugni: In the north  of Ishkashim and Pamir Mountains people talk in it.
35 -  Shumashti: in Jalalabad and west part of Konar people use it.
36 -  Tangshewi: In the north of Badakhshan and the  east of Darwaz people use it.
37 -  Tirahi: in the south west of Jalalabad and  Khaibar pass of Jalalabad province people  speak this language.
38 – Tregami: In the valley of  Tregam of Nurestan there are its speakers.
39 – Waigali: In the south of  Nurestan there are its speakers.
40 -  Wakhi: In the Vakhan pass, Pich river and Pamir, people talk in it.
41 -  Wotapuri-Katarqalai: In 1935, about 60 households in the Katar Qala or Katar Castle people were talking in it. In 1955 the figure came down to one household. Now may be it be consider as a death language.
B-Altai languages
1 -  Uzbek: People in Maimana speak this language.
2 – Uyghur or Uygur: People in Badakhshan and Ab e Barik or narrow water, speak the language.
3 – Turkmen: Its language speakers are in Faryab, Badghis, Herat and Andkhui.
4 -  Mogholi or Mongolian: They live  in some villages of Herat, Kariz e Mullah.
5 -  Kyrgyz or Qyrghyz: They live in great Pamir and some in Badakhshan. All those who live in the Little Pamir were left there and went to Pakistan in 1982 and later to Turkey.
6 -  Kazakh or Qazaq:They live in the west of  Konduz in  Khan Abad and  Andkhui.
7 -  Karakalpak or Qarakalpak:It is speakers are in the  north of Mazar and the  south of Jalalabad.
8 - Azerbaijani : A small group live in the Chandawul of Kabul. The other name is Afshari.
The Languages that are not classified:
1:  Warduji or  Wardugi: They live in the bank of Warduj river which located in the east of  Ishkashim.
2:  Malakhel: In Lugar some people talk in it.
Last But not least, sign language as called Afghan Sign Language. It is a part of dumb languages. People in such diverse cities as: Jalalabad, Kabul, Mazar, Herat, Kandahar, and their  surroundings  make communicate it.
It should not be forgotten that the above categories during transformation, especially those languages who are very  close to the  big populated languages, came under the influence and face a  change. The linguists concern is that the  both Pashto and Persian languages in gray borders are of languages slowly swallow  the other little  languages.
“Much do about nothing” Shakespeare
If you carefully look at this issue, two great languages, each of which make the essence of ethics,  are most important : one Indo-Hittite and next is Altaic. In the first category there are 41 languages and in the second one 8 languages are included. Thus it can be seen that bringing  division  between people according to languages are wrong and  baseless. This problem, especially in Pashto and Persian languages is amazing and very strange. From the perspective of linguistics, both have roots at the word of  Parsua. We can see the roots of matters in the power struggle which is running in the country and now the fever is burning hot. In this regard should be trying to enlighten it and shed deep and  profound light.
Situation of  ethnics: Visions
 Thomas Barfield, is a known ethnologist, sociologist and anthropologist . He started filed research and reviews from 1970 onward in to Afghanistan. At that time he was still a student. He after the three decades of wars and crisis, at the end of twenty century which stopped his field and research works, entered the country in 2002. He has such a belief, “Political scientist in their reviews concentrating on a person and his/her political parties and however the sociologists look at it deeper into people's groups, which are essential part of the forming of a community.,,
In Afghanistan, especially in the rural sector the ethnic groups or tribes have very  important role than a person or individual. This basic forms, though seems very simple, but  has such a power which absorb the different peoples and cultures who arriving newly. Then it continue its  life for centuries and  even millennium. Political institutions though  have embraced changes, but, it has roots in the same cultural values and social structure. Due to this fact, the foreigners during  of analyzing them, make great  mistakes.
Distinguishing feature of social existence in Afghanistan is  local and tribal divisions and ethnic groups. This highly flexible ethnic unit comprise of the tribes, clans, embed the wider circle of people. 
On the other hand, ethnic boundaries in some cases is really blend together as a way to have difficulty for  making our assessment. In many cases, these borders enters in one or another and are within the specified lines pass it over. More the level of the mixture is higher, the  separating boundaries are more pale and weak.
In a lot cases, we are seeing that a tribe in one region has tighter and closer relationship with its neighbors who is from another tribe, then to  his tribe in other parts of the country who are faraway.
It is clear that during Neolithic period- about six thousand years ago- along with those who lived here, people from the North and West were flooded with new languages and cultures of  themselves and  brought them along. These new comers settled down here, but, they were absorbed  by groups of people who were living in the valleys where the big and important rivers were flown. They settled in the big cities too.
On the other hand, the  deep and narrow valleys, making it possible that ancient languages and people living far from the influence of their rulers who lived in cities far away be preserved. This is why the North East high mountains, with narrow and deep valley, are the paradise and refuge for diverse languages and ethnic groups too. I believe that  most prominent example is Nurestan which its old  name was  Balurestan or White Crystal due to it high peaks which were covered with ice and snow. The Great Alexander with all his war abilities passed from its border. Arabs under the banner of Islam and for spreading it, entered in seventh century into our country, but the people of this area tile 1886 had kept their ancient religion and rituals. During the course of changes, some of these languages, especially dialects, formed and a lot of them died down.
In the  collective memory of people the  dreams of successes and defeats have been remained as a painting tableau.
Measures for understanding the Ethnics Groups
 Fredrik Bart in his work under the tittle as, Introducing  Ethnics in Conflicting Boundaries  which be considered one of the most profound analyzes, thinks that for knowing ethnic group we must consider four measures: The continuation of  birth, shared common values, cultural links and the same deeds , and finally the definition of self and others on the characteristic bases who knew them. This fourth index of Self or Myself and Others make the clear  boundaries between ethnics.
 View Points in the  Battlefield
According to Barfield belief, here too, political scholars and scientists on the one hand and sociologist on the other hand, took  the killing sword against each other. Political scholars think that ethnic groups are eternal and everlasting and primordial and see that emerged from the heart of ancient history and think that its boundaries are unchangeable and see that conflicts are unsolvable.
On the other hand ethnologist and humanist thinks that  ethnic groups are accidental and circumstantial events  and even consider them  changing. They look at the role of the individual in particular.
In Afghanistan with the first outlook have more roles yet, but the  acts and deeds in the day to day life show other and real side.
In Afghanistan ethnic groups can be divided into two parts: tribal and non-tribal. Tribal are   those who have their common ancestor real or imaginary, myth or legend. However, these genealogical lines, always goes through the father or indeed the man. Afghans (Pashtuns) can be placed in this line.
In the second part which there is no place for family trees, link them to their place of birth and place of residence. Hazarahs, though they have tribal structure, but, outside of this small framework, seek their roots to Mongols. Some of the people, took Shiite sect and Persian language as a symbol for their identity.
Some Afghans (Pashtuns) are trying to symbolize the physical appearance and characteristics. However, during recent centuries, the boundaries of forbidden marriages between ethnic groups died down slowly.
Etienne Balibar, in a book as, “Formation of Nation: history and Ideas”, says that every social institutions act according to imaginative idea. An individual person in the fold of this structure, with common traditions that goes to the distant past, that even he/she and others do not remember, are is living. Following this fact the identity take shape. Thus all individual identities are personal. It embeds in the context of history, social values, collective actions.
Live together 
As we examined above clearly, in this land a lot of  tribes, clans and ethnic groups lived together for a long time. However, it is clear that during the centuries and millenniums due to different cases the ethnic groups had wars and peace too.
As we knew the beginning of history starting with inscriptions. It marked around 500 BC. From that time onward, due to her geographical situations as the crossroad of Asia, we have witnessed wars and campaign from all sides. On the same times the different ethnic groups  constructed high  culture and  civilizations with their  creative works too. This event, highlighting the cultural diversity in all parts of life as language, clothes, poetry, songs, folklore and so. Response and compliance with humanitarian needs was the main cause for shaping of cooperative life. In this context  life is continuing. As it is clear the needs is satisfied in a lot of  ways. To achieve and satisfy this needs, institutions and organizations are formed. This can include family, tribe, clan, sub-tribe and so which among them the nation is the highest form.
In our country, the framework of  political entity was shaped in the eighty decades of ninety century. Before,  some times it included wide area and then reduced to today's political one. It paved the way for forming national government to pay farewell to the traditional social relations of tribes, clans and ethnic groups. However, this process due to  political crisis at the third decades of  twentieth century, was broken down and bloody wounds were bleeding.
Solutions: Two Ways
The first: removing and eliminating
Politicians and sociologists emphasize on the national consciousness, but, I believe till pre-national relations as tribal and ethnical one exist, the  situation will be different. In this structure, a person sense that his community is the highest entity. For him/her village, round his  birthplace and hometown, his region and where he/she is living is considered home-country. It is very clear that the outlooks of an urbanist and villager are profoundly different. If you go to a village you can see a lot of different clans, tribes and ethnic groups there.
It is clear that the original sin of ethnic crisis has a close relationship with the political changes. This is the government that names who is foe and who is friend. This is the same political system that encourages the tolerances or use military and security apparatus against this or that ethnic groups especially its culture. If we look in the political events during the recent centuries, we can find the depth of  problems.
It is clear that humanitarian community from the start of its shaping have passed through line of force and wars, or in other words through the blood, fire and iron, on the issue of different things. By the same token, in the frame of certain geographical entity and borders, a lot of different clans, tribes and ethnic which we call it State, are located. As it is clear, this phenomena was marked in  sixteenth century in Europe. In this context, whenever a certain ethnic group had reach to power, the central policy was for dominating all other ethnic types  and eliminating their diversities. In the  length of our human history we  have been eyewitness of a lot of wars and doing this kind of policies.
The second: democratic approach
By the start of the twentieth century, the issue of ethnic problems had not making headaches for different Empire. But, with the formation of the concept of nation and national government  more awareness about the  ethnic groups emerged.
I believe in simple language, that  nation is an institutions which is forming within a certain geographic boundaries with international recognition. In this framework a lot of people with different ethnics, languages and cultural identities live. This, could take place when the little structures  during a political and social change within a wider circle of social contract enter into national framework.
Fundamental question is: How we can end the ethnic hostility? How we can change  a state of hater and battle, to  the good and cooperative, peace and  assistance relaxing atmosphere?
Before  giving answers to these questions, it should be clear that encounter and conflict  about the benefits among human beings, will not never went off  because they're a  part of the social life. The basic issue is how to reduce them.
A lot of ethnic groups can live in  peace at the frame of limited partnership, but we can not expect them to embrace each other in warm fold. The most important point is that the diverse ethnic groups live together and treat each other with respect. The most desirable and most ideal situation is  that they helped each other in the  critical time.
 A large part of sociologists during the past two or three centuries paid more attention to the ethnic conflicts, but, now they concentrate on the nature of collaboration, cooperation and togetherness seriously.
Essential question is whether to eliminate or reduce ethnic conflicts and clashes is required to look in history? Many believe that today's social realities are the result of the yesterday's  events. It is true that today is a real fact, but  a part of it rest in the past and next one in the  future.
Experiences of peace after World War II, for shaping this outlook has particular significance. End of Fascism,  put on same time end point to  the pressure and persecution in the diverse communities.
The essence of this transformation is the change of political systems based on democratic values. Experience shows that in Europe, the governmental systems paved the ways for bringing  tranquil atmosphere day to day for the live of the ethnic diversity of the people. In this context, two very important approaches are worth to mention: first - The deed for better life. 2 – Attention for the   elimination of all causes of conflicts. Here we can not forget important role of social, civil and political parties.
New changes in our land
Our land in the  view points of political system from 70s of the twenty century onward faced with failed governments. Afghanistan during 19th , 20th  and 21th centuries had been invaded four times by foreign forces. The goal of it was to change the rulers. Britain sent its  military forces for changing the Afghan rulers  in 19th  century for two times. Soviet followed it in the twentieth century and changed its government. 
This time, USA in a kind of reflexed response to the terrorist attack on her land, attacked it. This was strongly associated with hasty plans. Due to  this facts it brought a lot of crisis too.
What that belonged to people amazed the  political observers. Despite thirty years of foreign and civil wars, beside that it had different ethnic fabrics and they had not made a true nation, it was not torn down!
The  causes should be see in its characteristic features. In this section, we can not apply the basic principe that national governments  are irreconcilable with the ethnic groups. In this part of  Central and South Asia, the presence of Empires, made it possible for different ethnic groups to live  with  diversity. In the length of history it became a principal fact .
In the crises situation in the country, the ethnic groups in the line of cooperation feel more secure. During the Soviet occupation, ethnic groups found the  opportunities to express their own feelings. Thus paved the way for growing of ethnical consciousness. The ethnic hierarchy which existed and was dominated the country and on the top of its pyramid  were Afghans (Pashtuns) after

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